Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data (1.1 km cell size) covering the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas offshore of Northern Alaska, USA and Northwest Canada.

Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
Publication_Date: 20051231
Title:
Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data (1.1 km cell size) covering the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas offshore of Northern Alaska, USA and Northwest Canada.
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: remote-sensing image
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Fairbanks, AK
Publisher: Geographic Information Network of Alaska (GINA), Geophysical Institute, Univeristy of Alaska-Fairbanks
Online_Linkage: http://mms.gina.alaska.edu
Description:
Abstract:
The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data set is comprised of data collected by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) AVHRR sensors and held in the archives of the International Observatory of the North (ION) at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF).  Carried aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite series, the AVHRR sensor is a broad-band, 4- or 5-channel scanning radiometer, sensing in the visible, near-infrared, and thermal infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum.  ION houses AVHRR High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) data and Local Area Coverage (LAC) data.  The HRPT data are full resolution image data transmitted to a ground station as they are collected, while LAC data (also full resolution data) are recorded with an onboard tape recorder for subsequent transmission during a station overpass.  The objective of the AVHRR instrument is to provide radiance data for investigation of clouds, land-water boundaries, snow and ice extent, ice or snow melt inception, day and night cloud distribution, temperatures of radiating surfaces, and sea surface temperature.  AVHRR data in the Visible and thermal-IR channels allow for discrimination between young and old ice which is important for lead detection.  The average instantaneous field-of-view (IFOV) of 1.4 milliradians yields a LAC/HRPT ground resolution of approximately 1.1 km at the satellite nadir from the nominal orbit altitude of 833 km (517 mi).
Purpose:
These satellite data were acquired and processed by the University of Alaska Fairbanks to meet contract requirements for the US Mineral Management Service:  Mapping and Characterization of Recurring Spring Leads and Landfast ice in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas (AK-03-06).
Supplemental_Information:
For the purposes of the MMS study, the file names associated with Band 1 data (visual) are prefixed with a "v" and Band 4 files (thermal) prefixed with a "t".  The day of the year, hour and minutes are incorporated in the file names.  For descriptive purposes the following abbreviations are used as placeholders for real values to illustrate the naming convention:
d = day of year
Y = Year
T = time in GMT
A Band 1 image follows this convention:  v d d d _T T T T.tif
A Band 4 image follows this convention:  t d d d _T T T T.tif
Examples of these file names are v015_1012.tif and t015_1012.tif
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 1993
Beginning_Time: unknown
Ending_Date: 2004
Ending_Time: unknown
Currentness_Reference:
ground condition
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: Unknown
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -164.176389
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -129.978654
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 73.947199
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 68.481395
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ArcIMS Metadata Server Theme Codes
Theme_Keyword: imagery
Theme_Keyword: environment
Theme_Keyword: location
Theme_Keyword: oceans
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Thesaurus
Theme_Keyword: sea ice
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: Dictionary of Alaska Place Names
Place_Keyword: Arctic Ocean
Place_Keyword: Chukchi Sea
Place_Keyword: Beaufort Sea
Place_Keyword: North Slope
Place_Keyword: Alaska
Place_Keyword: Canada
Access_Constraints: None.
Use_Constraints:
Any hardcopies or published datasets utilizing these data sets shall clearly indicate their source.  If the user has modified the data in any way they are obligated to describe the types of modifications that they have performed.  User specifically agrees not to misrepresent these datasets, nor to imply that any changes that they made were approved by the University of Alaska.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: Geophysical Institute
Contact_Person: Dr. Hajo Eicken
Contact_Position: Principal Investigator
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address:
903 Koyukuk Drive
City: Fairbanks
State_or_Province: Alaska
Postal_Code: 99775
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 907.474.7280
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 907-474-7290
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: hajo.eicken@gi.alaska.edu
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: *.jpg
Browse_Graphic_File_Description:
Low resolution thumbnail image
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: JPEG
Data_Set_Credit:
The funding for this effort was provided by the US Mineral Management Service for Mapping and Characterization of Recurring Spring Leads and Landfast ice in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas (AK-03-06, MMS-71707)
Native_Data_Set_Environment:
Microsoft Windows 2000 Version 5.0 (Build 2195) Service Pack4; ESRI ArcCatalog 8.3.0800
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Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report:
Each file was visually checked in an image browser to confirm placement and projection definition.
Completeness_Report:
Complete.
Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
ION uses satellite navigation and attitude parameters for scene navigation (with additional ground control) to produce adequate results (with errors <3 km) for geolocated AVHRR imagery.
Quantitative_Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Assessment:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Value: 3000
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Explanation:
Visual interpretation, distance measurement tools
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) data are full resolution image data transmitted to UAF's ground station at the International Observatory of the North (ION) as they are collected.
Process_Date: 200504
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Kevin Engle
Contact_Organization: University of Alaska Fairbanks, International Observatory of the North, Geophysical Institute
Contact_Position: Research Programmer and Receiving Station Manager
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address:
PO Box 757320
City: Fairbanks
State_or_Province: AK
Postal_Code: 99775-7320
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (907)474-5569
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: kengle@gina.alaska.edu
Hours_of_Service: business hours
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
AVHRR data was geolocated, calibrated and reprojected in GeoTIFF format using TeraScan software. A coast mask is applied in ENVI. The fraction of leads within each pixel is then determined based on the brightness temperatures or reflectances of open water and the surrounding thick ice, as described by Lindsay and Rothrock (Arctic sea ice leads from advanced very high resolution radiometer images. Journal of Geophysical Research, 100(C3), 4533-4544, 1995). Here, we have corrected for regional differences in surface temperature and reflectance as well as thin cloud cover by determining the fraction of leads within a moving 50 by 50 pixel (55 x 55 km) square window, with the fraction of thick ice based on the upper and lower quartile reflectance and brightness temperature, respectively. For a few cases of more expansive stretches of open water, manual adjustments of open water extent have been made. The resulting image indicating the fraction of open water is then binarized about a threshold corresponding to an open water fraction of 25% in each pixel, with pixels containing less open water designated as ice and those at or above 25% designated as leads. This information is then brought into NIH Image for derivation of lead location, shape and size statistics, open water fractions and other information for the different study subregions.
Process_Date: 200504
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Dr. Hajo Eicken
Contact_Organization: University of Alaska Fairbanks, Geophysical Institute
Contact_Position: Principal Investigator
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address:
903 Koyukuk Dr., P.O. Box 757320
City: Fairbanks
State_or_Province: AK
Postal_Code: 99775-7320
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 907-474-7280
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 907-474-7290
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: hajo.eicken@gi.alaska.edu
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Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Raster
Raster_Object_Information:
Raster_Object_Type: Pixel
Row_Count: 626
Column_Count: 1060
Vertical_Count: 1
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Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Planar:
Map_Projection:
Map_Projection_Name: Albers Conical Equal Area
Albers_Conical_Equal_Area:
Standard_Parallel: 55.000000
Standard_Parallel: 65.000000
Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -154.000000
Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 50.000000
False_Easting: 0.000000
False_Northing: 0.000000
Planar_Coordinate_Information:
Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: row and column
Coordinate_Representation:
Abscissa_Resolution: 1.000000
Ordinate_Resolution: 1.000000
Planar_Distance_Units: meters
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1983
Ellipsoid_Name: Geodetic Reference System 80
Semi-major_Axis: 6378137.000000
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.257222
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Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: Band_1; Band_4
Entity_Type_Definition:
Visual; Thermal
Entity_Type_Definition_Source:
NOAA
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: ObjectID
Attribute_Definition:
Internal feature number.
Attribute_Definition_Source:
ESRI
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Object Identifier
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Internal Feature Number for Raster Data
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source:
Computed
Attribute_Measurement_Frequency:
Unknown
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Value
Attribute_Definition:
Cell Value
Attribute_Definition_Source:
ESRI
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Value
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Internal Feature Number for Raster Data
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source:
Computed
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Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: UAF Geographic Information Network of Alaska (GINA)
Contact_Person: Dr. Virgil (Buck) Sharpton
Contact_Position: President's Professor of Remote Sensing
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address:
903 Koyukuk Drive
City: Fairbanks
State_or_Province: Alaska
Postal_Code: 99775-7320
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 907.474.6663
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: buck.sharpton@gina.alaska.edu
Hours_of_Service: 8:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m. AST
Resource_Description: Downloadable Data
Distribution_Liability:
The University of Alaska makes no express or implied warranties (including warranties of merchantability and fitness) with respect to the character, function, or capabilities of the electronic services or products or their appropriateness for any users purposes. In no event will the University of Alaska be liable for any incidental, indirect, special, consequential or other damages suffered by the user or any other person or entity whether from the use of the electronic services or products, any failure thereof or otherwise, and in no event will the State of Alaska's liability to the requestor or anyone else exceed the fee paid for the electronic service or product.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: GeoTiff
Format_Version_Date: 200301101
Format_Specification:
AVHRR Level 1b
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: http://ion.gina.alaska.edu/sv/
Network_Resource_Name: http://mms.gina.alaska.edu
Fees: none
Available_Time_Period:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 1972
Ending_Date: unknown
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Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20040915
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: Nuna Technologies
Contact_Person: Allison Graves Gaylord
Contact_Position: Owner/GIS Specialist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address:
P.O. Box 1483
City: Homer
State_or_Province: Alaska
Postal_Code: 99603-1483
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 907.399.1120
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 907.235.3476
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: nunatech@usa.net
Contact Instructions:
Email Preferred.
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Time_Convention: local time
Metadata_Access_Constraints: None.
Metadata_Use_Constraints:
If the user has modified the data in any way they are obligated to describe the types of modifications they have performed in the supporting metadata file. User specifically agrees not to imply that changes they made were approved by the University of Alaska.
Metadata_Security_Information:
Metadata_Security_Classification_System: None.
Metadata_Security_Classification: Unclassified
Metadata_Security_Handling_Description:
None.
Metadata_Extensions:
Online_Linkage: http://www.esri.com/metadata/esriprof80.html
Profile_Name: ESRI Metadata Profile
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